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H.E.S.S. observations of the Carina nebula and its enigmatic colliding wind binary Eta Carinae

A. Abramowski 1 Fabio Acero 2 F. Aharonian 3 A. G. Akhperjanian 4 G. Anton 5 Agnès Balzer 5 A. Barnacka 6, 7 Y. Becherini 8, 9 J. Becker 10 K. Bernlöhr 3 E. Birsin 11 J. Biteau 8 A. Bochow 3 C. Boisson 12 J. Bolmont 13 P. Bordas 14 J. Brucker 15 F. Brun 8 P. Brun 7 T. Bulik 16 I. Büsching 10 S. Carrigan 3 S. Casanova 3 M. Cerruti 12 P. M. Chadwick A. Charbonnier 13 R. C. G. Chaves 7, 3 A. Cheesebrough 17 G. Cologna J. Conrad M. Dalton M. K. Daniel I. D. Davids B. Degrange 8 C. Deil 3 H. J. Dickinson A. Djannati-Ataï 9 W. Domainko 3 L. O'C. Drury 18 G. Dubus K. Dutson J. Dyks 16 M. Dyrda K. Egberts P. Eger 5 P. Espigat 9 L. Fallon 18 S. Fegan 8 F. Feinstein 2 M. V. Fernandes 1 A. Fiasson 19 G. Fontaine 8 A. Förster 3 M. Füßling 20 Y. A. Gallant 2 T. Garrigoux 21 H. Gast 3 L. Gérard 9 B. Giebels 8 J. F. Glicenstein 7 B. Glück 15 D. Göring 15 M.-H. Grondin 3 S. Häffner 15 J. D. Hague 3 J. Hahn 3 D. Hampf 1 J. Harris M. Hauser S. Heinz 15 G. Heinzelmann 1 G. Henri G. Hermann 3 A. Hillert 3 J. A. Hinton W. Hofmann 3 P. Hofverberg 3 M. Holler 15 D. Horns 1 A. Jacholkowska 13 C. Jahn 15 M. Jamrozy I. Jung 15 M. A. Kastendieck 1 K. Katarzyński U. Katz 15 S. Kaufmann B. Khélifi 8 D. Klochkov 22 W. Kluźniak 16 T. Kneiske 1 Nu. Komin 19 K. Kosack 7 R. Kossakowski 19 F. Krayzel 19 H. Laffon 8 G. Lamanna 19 J.-P. Lenain D. Lennarz 3 T. Lohse 11 A. Lopatin 15 C.-C. Lu 3 V. Marandon 3 A. Marcowith 2 J. Masbou 19 G. Maurin 19 N. Maxted M. Mayer 3 T. J. L. Mccomb M. C. Medina 7 J. Méhault 2 R. Moderski 16 M. Mohamed Emmanuel Moulin 7 C. L. Naumann 13 M. Naumann-Godo 23 M. de Naurois 8 D. Nedbal D. Nekrassov 3 N. Nguyen 1 B. Nicholas J. Niemiec S. J. Nolan S. Ohm 3 E. de Oña Wilhelmi 3 B. Opitz 1 M. Ostrowski I. Oya 11 M. Panter 3 M. Paz Arribas 11 N. W. Pekeur G. Pelletier J. Perez P. -O. Petrucci B. Peyaud 7 S. Pita 9 G. Pühlhofer 22 M. Punch 9 A. Quirrenbach M. Raue 1 A. Reimer O. Reimer M. Renaud 2 R. de Los Reyes 3 F. Rieger 3 J. Ripken L. Rob S. Rosier-Lees 19 G. Rowell B. Rudak 16 C. B. Rulten V. Sahakian 24 D. A. Sanchez 3 A. Santangelo 22 R. Schlickeiser 10 A. Schulz 15 U. Schwanke 11 S. Schwarzburg 22 S. Schwemmer F. Sheidaei 9 J. L. Skilton 3 H. Sol 12 G. Spengler 11 Ł. Stawarz R. Steenkamp 15 C. Stegmann 15 F. Stinzing 15 K. Stycz 15 I. Sushch 11 A. Szostek J. -P. Tavernet 13 R. Terrier 9 M. Tluczykont 1 K. Valerius 15 C. van Eldik 15 G. Vasileiadis 2 C. Venter A. Viana 7 P. Vincent 13 H. J. Völk 3 F. Volpe 3 S. Vorobiov 2 M. Vorster S. J. Wagner M. Ward R. White A. Wierzcholska M. Zacharias 10 A. Zajczyk 2, 16 A. A. Zdziarski 16 A. Zech 12 H. -S. Zechlin 1 T. Montmerle
Abstract : The massive binary system Eta Carinae and the surrounding HII complex, the Carina Nebula, are potential particle acceleration sites from which very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) \gamma-ray emission could be expected. This paper presents data collected during VHE \gamma-ray observations with the H.E.S.S. telescope array from 2004 to 2010, which cover a full orbit of Eta Carinae. In the 33.1-hour data set no hint of significant \gamma-ray emission from Eta Carinae has been found and an upper limit on the \gamma-ray flux of 7.7 x 10-13 ph cm-2 s-1 (99% confidence level) is derived above the energy threshold of 470 GeV. Together with the detection of high-energy (HE; 0.1 GeV > E > 100 GeV) \gamma-ray emission by the Fermi-LAT up to 100 GeV, and assuming a continuation of the average HE spectral index into the VHE domain, these results imply a cut-off in the \gamma-ray spectrum between the HE and VHE \gamma-ray range. This could be caused either by a cut-off in the accelerated particle distribution or by severe \gamma-\gamma\ absorption losses in the wind collision region. Furthermore, the search for extended \gamma-ray emission from the Carina Nebula resulted in an upper limit on the \gamma-ray flux of 4.2 x 10-12 ph cm-2 s-1 (99% confidence level). The derived upper limit of ~23 on the cosmic-ray enhancement factor is compared with results found for the old-age mixed-morphology supernova remnant W 28.
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A. Abramowski, Fabio Acero, F. Aharonian, A. G. Akhperjanian, G. Anton, et al.. H.E.S.S. observations of the Carina nebula and its enigmatic colliding wind binary Eta Carinae. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy P - Oxford Open Option A, 2012, 424, pp.128-135. ⟨10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21180.x⟩. ⟨in2p3-00697570⟩

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